Symbol: Si
Atomic number: 14
Category: metalloids
Group: 14
Period: 3
Block: p
Atomic weight: 28.0855 g/mol
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 4
CAS number: 7440-21-3
Phase: solid
Density: 2.3290 kg/l (near room temperature)
Melting point: 1687 K (1414C, 2577F)
Boiling point: 3538 K (3265C, 5909F)
Crystal structure: diamond cubic
Oxidation states: 4, 3, 2, 1
Electronegativity: 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Name's origin: silex or silicis
Name's meaning: the Latin word for flintstone which is a form of the mineral quartz which contains silicon
- is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon
- as the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, it very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature
- on Earth, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the crust, making up 25.7% of the crust by mass
- is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips
- is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals
- in the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics