Neodymium

Symbol: Nd
Atomic number: 60
Category: lanthanides
Group: n/a
Period: 6
Block: f
Atomic weight: 144.242 g/mol
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
CAS number: 7440-00-8
Phase: solid
Density: 7.01 kg/l (near room temperature)
Melting point: 1297 K (1024C, 1875F)
Boiling point: 3347 K (3074C, 5565F)
Crystal structure: hexagonal
Oxidation states: 3
Electronegativity: 1.14 (Pauling scale)
Name's origin: neos and didymos
Name's meaning: Greek words which mean new and twin
Facts:
- is present in Mischmetal to the extent of about 18%
- has a bright, silvery metallic luster; however, as one of the more reactive rare earth (Lanthanide) metals, it quickly oxidizes in air
- the oxide layer then falls off, which exposes the
- although a rare earth metal, neodymium is not rare at all - it constitutes 38 ppm of the Earth's crust
- neodymium magnets are the strongest permanent magnets known
- is frequently misspelled as neodynium
- is never found in nature as the free element; rather, it occurs in ores such as monazite sand
- neodymium metal dust is a combustion and explosion hazard
- commercially available magnets made from neodymium are exceptionally strong, and can attract each other from large distances - if not handled carefully, they could come together very quickly and forcefully, causing injuries