Lead

Symbol: Pb
Atomic number: 82
Category: post-transition metals
Group: 14
Period: 6
Block: p
Atomic weight: 207.2 g/mol
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
CAS number: 7439-92-1
Phase: solid
Density: 11.34 kg/l (near room temperature)
Melting point: 600.61 K (327.46C, 621.43F)
Boiling point: 2022 K (1749C, 3180F)
Crystal structure: cubic face centered
Oxidation states: 4, 2
Electronegativity: 2.33 (Pauling scale)
Name's origin: lot
Name's meaning: the German word for 'weight', as the element is very heavy, and is used in weights
Facts:
- in Latin, lead was called plumbum; in Rome, lead was used for plumbing
- is a soft, malleable poor metal, also considered to be one of the heavy metals
- has a bluish-white color when freshly cut, but tarnishes to a dull grayish color when ex
- has a shiny chrome-silver luster when melted into a liquid
- like mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bone over time
- is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, and is part of solder, pewter, fusible alloys and radiation shields
- has the highest atomic number of all stable elements, although the next element, bismuth, has a half-life so long (longer than the estimated age of the universe) it can be considered stable