Gold

Symbol: Au
Atomic number: 79
Category: transition metals
Group: 11
Period: 6
Block: d
Atomic weight: 196.966569 g/mol
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
CAS number: 7440-57-5
Phase: solid
Density: 19.3 kg/l (near room temperature)
Melting point: 1337.33 K (1064.18°C, 1947.52°F)
Boiling point: 3129 K (2856°C, 5173°F)
Crystal structure: face centered cubic
Oxidation states: -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity: 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Name's origin: Aurum
Name's meaning: glowing dawn, due to its color
Facts:
- occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits
- is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile pure metal known
- dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but does not react with it
- a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of one square meter, or an ounce into 300 square feet
- modern uses include dentistry and electronics, where gold has traditionally found use because of its good resistance to oxidative corrosion
- is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested and is sometimes used
- is also a component of the alcoholic drinks Goldschläger, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser
- gold is approved as a food additive in the EU