Kemiallinen merkki: Si
Järjestysluku: 14
Kategoria: puolimetallit
Ryhmä: 14
Jakso: 3
Lohko: p
Moolimassa: 28,0855 g/mol
Elektronia kuorilla: 2, 8, 4
CAS-numero: 7440-21-3
Olomuoto: kiinteä
Tiheys: 2,3290 kg/l (lähellä huoneenlämpöä)
Sulamispiste: 1687 K (1414 °C, 2577 °F)
Kiehumispiste: 3538 K (3265 °C, 5909 °F)
Kiderakenne: diamond cubic
Hapetusluvut: 4, 3, 2, 1
Elektronegatiivisuus: 1,90 (Pauling-asteikko)
Nimen alkuperä: silex or silicis
Nimen tarkoitus: the Latin word for flintstone which is a form of the mineral quartz which contains silicon
- is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon
- as the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, it very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature
- on Earth, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the crust, making up 25,7% of the crust by mass
- is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips
- is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals
- in the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics