Typpi

Kemiallinen merkki: N
Järjestysluku: 7
Kategoria: epämetallit
Ryhmä: 15
Jakso: 2
Lohko: p
Moolimassa: 14,0067 g/mol
Elektronia kuorilla: 2, 5
CAS-numero: 7727-37-9
Olomuoto: kaasu
Tiheys: 1,251 g/l (0 °C, 101,325 kPa)
Sulamispiste: 63,153 K (-210,00 °C, -346,00 °F)
Kiehumispiste: 77,36 K (-195,79 °C, -320,3342 °F)
Kiderakenne: hexagonal
Hapetusluvut: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -3
Elektronegatiivisuus: 3,04 (Pauling-asteikko)
Nimen alkuperä: nitrogenium
Nimen tarkoitus: the Latin word for 'saltpetre' (nitrum) and 'forming' (genes) - forms potassium nitrate
Faktoja:
- is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions
- constitutes 78% by volume of Earth's atmosphere
- many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants an
- is created by fusion processes in stars, and is estimated to be the 7th most abundant chemical element by mass in the universe
- is a constituent element of amino acids and thus of proteins, and of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
- is used widely as an industrial gas: e,g, to preserve the freshness of packaged or bulk foods, in ordinary incandescent light bulbs on top of liquid explosives and in the manufacturing of stainless steel
- rapid release of nitrogen gas into an enclosed space can displace oxygen, and therefore represents an asphyxiation hazard