Germanium

Kemiallinen merkki: Ge
Järjestysluku: 32
Kategoria: puolimetallit
Ryhmä: 14
Jakso: 4
Lohko: p
Moolimassa: 72,64 g/mol
Elektronia kuorilla: 2, 8, 18, 4
CAS-numero: 7440-56-4
Olomuoto: kiinteä
Tiheys: 5,323 kg/l (lähellä huoneenlämpöä)
Sulamispiste: 1211,40 K(938,25 °C, 1720,85 °F)
Kiehumispiste: 3106 K (2833 °C, 5131 °F)
Kiderakenne: diamond cubic
Hapetusluvut: 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
Elektronegatiivisuus: 2,01 (Pauling-asteikko)
Nimen alkuperä: Germania
Nimen tarkoitus: the Latin word for Germany, after the discoverer's father land
Faktoja:
- five naturally occurring isotopes ranging in atomic mass number from 70 to 76
- is relatively abundant in the Earth's crust
- is an important semiconductor material used in transistors and various other electronic devices
- is mined primarily from sphalerite, though it is also recovered from silver, lead, and copper ores
- is not thought to be essential to the health of plants or animals
- most notable physical characteristics of germania (GeO2) are its high index of refraction and its low optical dispersion - these make it especially useful for wide-angle camera lenses, microscopy, and for the core part of optical fibers
- has little or no impact on the environment because it usually occurs only as a trace element in ores and carbonaceous materials, and is used in very small quantities in commercial applications