Hiili

Kemiallinen merkki: C
Järjestysluku: 6
Kategoria: epämetallit
Ryhmä: 14
Jakso: 2
Lohko: p
Moolimassa: 12,0107 g/mol
Elektronia kuorilla: 2, 4
CAS-numero: 7440-44-0
Olomuoto: kiinteä
Tiheys: 1,8 - 2,1 kg/l (amorphous) - near r,t, 2,267 kg/l (graphite) - near r,t 3,515 kg/l (diamond) - near r,t,
Sulamispiste: 3800 (graphite) K (3527 °C, 6381 °F)
Kiehumispiste: 4300 K (4027 °C, 7281 °F)
Kiderakenne: graphite: hexagonal diamond: isometric-hexoctahedral
Hapetusluvut: -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegatiivisuus: 2,55 (Pauling-asteikko)
Nimen alkuperä: carbo
Nimen tarkoitus: a Latin word meaning charcoal as carbon is found in it
Faktoja:
- has lots of allotropic forms - e,g, diamond, amorphous carbon, graphite and fullerene
- is the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen
- is present in all known lifeforms, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18,5%) after oxygen
- is the chemical basis of all known life
- all the allotropic forms are solids under normal conditions
- pure carbon has extremely low toxicity and can be handled and even ingested safely in the form of graphite or charcoal graphite is the most thermodynamically stable
- diamond is among the hardest materials known, while graphite is soft enou
- diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of all known materials